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Download A Textbook Of General Botany

A Textbook Of General Botany

  • Author: Gilbert M. Smith
  • Pages: 505
  • Language: English
  • ISBN/ASIN: 1406773158
  • Upload date: 7-12-2016, 12:00
  • Category: Biology

A TEXTB K W DF GENERAL BOTANY By GILBERT M. SMITH STANFORD T JAMES B. OVERTON, EDWARD M. GILBERT, ROLLIN H. DENNISTON, GEORGE S. BRYAN, AND CHARLES E. ALLEN T7NIVEBSITY OF WISCONSIN Third Edition NEW YORK THE MACMILLAlf COMPANY 1937 FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This book is an outgrowth of the experience of the authors in the teaching of elementary botany at the University of Wisconsin. For the past three years the text, in successively revised form, has been used in our first-year courses. In its preparation, we have been guided by the view that the subject of botany should be presented as a unit. The beginning student is not interested in, and should not be burdened with, distinctions between the artificially abstracted phases of the subject morphology, physiology, ecology, and the like distinc tions which have their place in defining and limiting the scope of more advanced and special courses. Especially should the study of structure and that of function be intimately correlated in an elementary course. It is hardly necessary, in the present state of development of the teaching of science, to point out that forms selected for study should, whenever possible, be such as are already known to the student, either because of their widespread occurrence in nature or in cultivation, or because of their economic importance or that general conceptions should be illustrated by familiar facts. Par ticularly in botany should the beginning of the study be an observation of everyday plants. Considerations such as these have guided us in the choice of material to be used in an elementary course. In a subject the teaching of which involves the introduction of the student to many newconcepts, the use of a new terminology is unavoidable. However, the authors realize that each new term imposes an additional burden upon the student and correspond ingly handicaps him in the mastery of the subject matter. We have attempted, therefore, to avoid technical terms except those which were found indispensable to a clear presentation. Only such facts and conceptions have been introduced as our experience has shown can be successfully treated in the Bourse of the beginning year. Necessarily the subject matter has been arranged in what seems to the authors a logical order assumption of a continuous years course. Howev n vii viii FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION institutions, conditions necessitate the offering of a briefer elemen tary course in botany. We have tried to provide for the possibility of such a course by so treating various topics that, within reasonable limits, certain chapters and portions of chapters may be omitted without destroying the continuity of the course or im pairing the utility of the later parts of the book. CONTENTS 7HAPTER - PAGM I. THE MAKE-UP OF4BBB . W IWWV 11 . 1 III. How MATERIALS ENTER AND LEAVE Ca SSt JL5 IV. ROOTS . fflBP 25 V STEMS . rs 50 Vx. . bUDS A u p-r r 83 VII. LEAVES 94 Vllly RELATIONS OF PLANTS TO WATER r r . . 114 IX. VTHE MANUFACTURE OF FOODS 136 X THE UTILIZATION OF FOODS 152 XI. STIMULUS AND RESPONSE 166 - XII. NUCLEAR AND CELL DIVISION .-- r r r r 183 XHI.-THE CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS --T-. . 195 2vIV. v CHLOROPHYCEAE GREEN ALGAE . . . 199 XV. vMYXOPHYCEAE BLUE-GREEN ALGAE . 225 XVI. HAEOPHYCEAE BROWN ALGAE ., . . 231 XVII. RHODOPHYCEAE RED ALGAE 243 SVIIL BACTERIA i . x 250 S, XIX. PHYCOMYCETES . . 267 XX. ASCOMYCETES . 280XXL BASIDIOMYCETES tx 290 XXII. LICHENS . 310 XXIII. HEPATICAE LIVERWORTS . 317 XXIV. Musci MOSSES . 340 XXV. REDUCTION OF THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMBS v - 356 XXVI. FILICINEAE FERNS . 36B XXVII. SOME OTHER PTERIDOPHYTES . . . . . . ISlI ix x CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE XXVIII. GYMNOBPERMS .... -r r. . . 397 XXIX. ANGIOSPERMS 423 XXX. SEEDS AND FRUITS . .., -r T 443 XXXI. FLORAL TYPES AND THE FAMILIES OF ANGIOSPERMS - 462 XXXII. INHERITANCE AND VARIATION 486 XXXIII. EVOLUTION 510 XXXIV. THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS IN NORTH AMERICA 522 XXXV

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