Author: Jim Kwik
Limitless: Upgrade Your Brain, Learn Anything Faster, and Unlock Your Exceptional Life Jim Kwik 2020
Boy with a broken brain (Limitless)
Limitless: Jim Kwik was an ordinary child – smart, sociable, cheerful, and curious. But one day, during a lesson in elementary school, an accident happened to him – another boy pulled out from under Jim the chair on which he was standing. Jim lost his balance and fell, hitting his head hard on the battery.
Since then, everything has changed. Despite the fact that the injury was not too serious, it became difficult for Jim to study. He could not keep his attention on something for a long time, did not remember information well, and learned to read with great difficulty. Dumb, incapable, too stupid to learn – that’s what Jim thought of himself while he was in school. Classmates laughed at him and called him “a boy with a broken brain.”
Having barely finished school, Jim was still able to enroll in a local college. But the study was given so hard that Jim was thinking about quitting classes. Upon learning of this, one of his friends invited Jim to his house for the weekend. At dinner, a classmate’s father asked how Jim was doing in college, and Jim burst into tears. In response, the father of a classmate asked Jim what he saw as the main goal of his life and gave him a list of self-development readings. Jim returned to college and became so engrossed in reading that he ended up in the hospital again, this time with exhaustion.
It was in the hospital that Jim got the idea that perhaps it was not only and not so much in his injury, but in how he studies. What if standard teaching methods don’t work for him? What if just a change of approach is enough for a fulfilling and vibrant life?
Twenty years later, Jim Quick has become a recognized expert in learning, memory development and cognitive enhancement of the brain. Thousands of people from 195 countries of the world have taken his author’s online course, and the Quick Brain podcast is consistently at the top of iTunes in the Learning section.
In his new book, Unlimited, Jim Quick shares the key insights that have helped him and his many students — including employees from Google, Virgin, Nike, Zappos — to believe in themselves and their abilities, get rid of limiting attitudes, master new learning techniques and finally unlock your true potential.
The Boundless Thinking Model, according to Jim Kwik, consists of three parts:
- Mental attitudes (WHAT) are deep attitudes about who we are, what we are capable of and what we deserve, how the world works and what is possible and what is not in it. Limiting yourself in this area means not believing in yourself, in your abilities, in the fact that you deserve better.
- Motivation (WHY) – the purpose and energy necessary for any action. Limiting yourself in this area means not feeling the drive and desire to move forward.
- Methods (HOW) – practices that we use to achieve the goal. To limit ourselves in this area means to use outdated methods that are not capable of leading us to the desired result.
Only by lifting the limits on all three can you truly unlock your potential and close the gap between your real life and the life you want to live.
In order to remove these limitations, many of us will have to relearn how to learn and work with information. The development of technology has provoked unprecedented progress, but the human brain was not ready for such a rapid expansion, and now our main task is to teach it to consume wisely and as efficiently as possible.
First of all, we must remember that boredom is our friend and ally. It is the state of doing nothing that allows the brain to reboot and start scanning the surrounding space in search of new ideas. Grabbing a smartphone in any free minute, we justify ourselves by saying that we do it for good purposes: once again check work mail, answer in a general chat, or see how friends are doing so as not to lose sight of them at all. In fact, we do ourselves a disservice, because by depriving ourselves of truly free minutes, we get more tired, burn out faster and significantly reduce the quality of memory.
It is equally important to reconsider the approach to learning itself. In the age of the “information flood”, memorization can no longer be considered an adequate practice, since huge amounts of data become outdated literally before our eyes and there is no point in cramming them. However, completely delegating the memory function to a smartphone is a bad idea. The brain needs regular training , and relying on a conditional navigator for everything, we allow many functions to atrophy and stop independently coping with tasks that cannot be solved on a device.
Managing huge amounts of information, concentrating on the current task, developing critical thinking skills to work with many sources, constantly improving the speed of reading and our ability to remember qualitatively – all this we have to learn.
We are not born with clear guidelines about what we are capable of, but acquire them in the process of growing up and interacting with society. Some misconceptions are so rooted in everyday life that it is almost impossible to avoid their influence. Here are seven of the most common myths that the author proposes to debunk in order to gain freedom of thought.
Myth 1. Intelligence is innate
Nothing like this. Although we all do have different inclinations, intelligence is not a fixed quantity. The sharpness of the mind can be trained in the same way as the muscles of the body. Modern research suggests that there is no clear and objective division of people into geniuses and ordinary people, and our intellectual and creative success depends almost exclusively on the type of thinking. The difference between flexible and fixed mindset is that flexible thinking is based on the attitude “if I work on myself, I can achieve better results” and assumes the possibility of development, while fixed thinking is based on the attitude “everything is as it is and change this is not possible”, and therefore closes the opportunities for change and growth.
Myth 2: We only use 10% of our brain.
This myth is related to the previous one and reflects the conviction that it is impossible to achieve more because 90% of the potential is hidden from us. What if we could use 100% of the brain? What would we achieve then? Modern neuroscience answers exactly the same as now because we use all 100% of our brains. The only difference is how we use it.
Myth 3. A mistake is a failure.
It is customary to think that the more often a person makes mistakes, the sooner one can say that he is a loser. But in fact, error is a tool of knowledge. The more often a person makes mistakes, the more opportunities he has to correct the defect and succeed in the future. All truly successful people agree on one thing – only those who do nothing do not make mistakes.
Myth 4. Knowledge is power
Knowledge itself is not power, but only potential, which may or may not turn into power. Real strength is knowledge multiplied by practice. All books, podcasts, seminars and courses put together will not help change lives without being applied and tested in detail in real life.
Myth 5. Learning new things is difficult.
It all depends on how you approach the process. If your goal is to learn a foreign language in three months, chances are it won’t be easy, if not impossible 2. However, by breaking down your learning into understandable and manageable steps, you will find that the rewards are well worth the investment. Moreover, the process of learning itself implies that it should not be too easy. In order for the muscles to grow, you need to load them a little harder than you want.
Myth 6. Other people’s criticisms deserve attention.
As Brené Brown 3, a well-known American researcher of shame and vulnerability, says, you can only accept criticism from those who are in the arena with you: that is, they take risks, do something difficult and unusual, and go beyond their own beliefs and capabilities. But the truth is that such people never criticize others. They can support with advice, but will not condemn directly. No matter what you do, there will always be those who will judge and criticize you. However, this is definitely not a reason to be inactive.
Myth 7. Geniuses are born
Often, by genius, we mean a person with specific abilities who have achieved great success at their expense of them. In reality, success depends not so much on ability, but on a combination of a variety of factors, including the strength of character 4, perseverance, the ability to see opportunities for growth in mistakes, and stick to your own business despite the criticism of others. The fates of many geniuses from Albert Einstein to Bruce Lee confirm that geniuses are not born, they are made.
Many installations are passed on to us by our loved ones. It’s frustrating to realize that limiting beliefs may have come from parents, partners, or friends, but the good news is that the lever to reconfigure the perception of ourselves and life is in our hands.
Dealing with personal limiting attitudes is not as easy as dealing with common misconceptions. Some of them penetrate so deeply into consciousness that they begin to sound like an inner voice. The following three steps will help minimize their number and impact on your life:
1. Look for your installations and call them by name. The enemy must be known by sight. Whenever you notice that the inner voice begins to say something in a negative way about you, stop and try to write down exactly what you heard. For example, “I don’t know how to joke.” At first glance, there is nothing special in these words, after all, your life is unlikely to depend on it, but in fact, these “harmless” words may hide a deeper meaning: I’m bored with me, I’m not interesting to anyone. Try to understand at what point this belief was born. So you can move from humiliating yourself to supporting yourself. Instead of “I never succeed,” say “just because it didn’t work out now doesn’t mean it won’t work out in the future, you need to try again.”
2. Operate with facts. Negative attitudes are based on emotions. Try to rationally look at things and move from allegations to facts. Even if you find any, ask yourself if your negative attitude could have affected the outcome, and if so, to what extent.
3. Create new settings. They should be based on facts, inspire you to move forward, and help in critical situations, and not vice versa. For example, if you usually scold yourself for constantly making mistakes in stressful situations, turn to the facts and admit that in many cases you managed to act correctly, and most of the mistakes that you did make did not lead to a great catastrophe, which means that they were not as critical as you might think.
Contrary to popular belief, motivation, like intelligence, is not a fixed quantity. We don’t wake up with one level of motivation or another but create it “with our own hands” throughout the day. Motivation is a process and constant practice.
Motivation can be thought of as a formula: Motivation = Purpose × Energy × The Art of Small Steps.
In this case, the goal is not the task, but the meaning, the global intention 5 . If you set goals for yourself but can’t explain to yourself why you need to complete them, it’s no surprise that many of them remain unfinished. As you know, a person buys not what another sells, but why he does it. You are your main customer. Without knowing why you are going somewhere, you will never be able to get there.
People are often urged to “find your passion” so they can answer this question for themselves. But there is a trap in these words. It is understood that at some point an insight should descend on you and you will once and for all decide on your favorite pastime and professional destiny. In fact, the search for passion is a process, of constant experimentation and interaction with what brings joy. There can be many interests in life, and we do not have to lock ourselves in the prison of a decision once made.
A goal, an intention, a global vision is not a passion in itself, but how you want to use it. And this means that in order to maintain a stable level of motivation, you need to find the answer to the question of how the fruits of your passion affect other people. Ultimately, we all pursue the same global goal – to help others through the transfer of knowledge and the application of acquired skills.
If you do not feel motivated and inclined towards any activity, then you do not see a global goal behind it. For example, learning English is not a goal, but a task. Emotionally connecting to the task is very difficult. Try to be specific: I want to learn English so that I can finally talk to my husband’s relatives, or I want to learn English so that I can travel freely with my child and show him the world.
In order to tirelessly move towards the goal, you need not only motivation but also energy. Mental and physical activity is the key to our well-being. To keep vital energy at its maximum level, the author suggests following ten simple recommendations.
Stimulate your brain with the right foods. The brain is like a car – if you constantly pour bad gasoline and oil into it, it will quickly break down. Try for once to use the products of the premium segment, and you will see how your car should actually go. The most beneficial foods for the brain: are avocados, blueberries, broccoli, dark chocolate, eggs, green leafy vegetables, salmon, sardines, caviar, turmeric, and walnuts.
Take vitamins. If for one reason or another you do not get enough vitamins from everyday food, consult your doctor and drink a course of vitamins that will help you tighten up the missing and reach a new level of physical activity.
Do your exercises. Movement is life. Remember how good you think on a run or in the gym. Exercise helps relieve stress, saturate the body with oxygen, switch the head, or, conversely, sharpen perception. Even if you don’t have time to go to the gym, 10 minutes of exercise a day will already significantly improve your quality of life.
Control your thoughts. By allowing ourselves to indulge in negative automatisms, we bind ourselves hand and foot. If you constantly tell yourself that you are too young to do something, you will never get started, because at some point you will find that you are already too old. Do not maintain the habit of constantly chasing the same mental chewing gum in your head, replace negativity with positive attitudes.
Monitor air quality. Even if you live in an ecologically unfavorable area or region, do not give up trying to make your intellectual activity easier: use one of the modern air purification devices.
Create a positive environment around you. Life success directly depends on what kind of people surround us. Take a close look at your surroundings: do they support you, inspire and motivate you to move forward, or make you constantly make excuses in response to toxic comments? Our environment influences everything from what we eat to how much we sleep.
Be careful. Brain damage is perhaps the most serious injury that can happen to a person. It’s not just about being careful about extreme sports, but also about caution in everyday situations: exceeding the speed limit while riding a motorcycle is always a bad idea.
Keep learning. Learning something new is brain fitness. This is how you keep your most valuable organ in a plastic state, train it to create new neural connections, and increase resistance to all sorts of violations.
Learn to deal with stress. When we are stressed, we release the hormone cortisol. If this happens from time to time – it’s okay, as nature intended. However, if you are constantly stressed, cortisol builds up and negatively affects cognitive function.
Sleep more. Quality sleep is not a luxury, but a strict necessity if you want to maintain a stable level of energy and vitality. Sleep affects every aspect of our health, from the psyche to the cardiovascular system. In the context of brain activity, the less sleep you have, the more difficult it is for you to remember the new and remember the old, the worse you concentrate and the slower you respond to external stimuli.
The art of small steps
One of the key reasons why people don’t complete projects, if not take them on at all, is that they look at the entire upcoming project as a whole – and such a scope is depressing. Let’s say you want to read a 700-page book. If at the end of the day you think about the upcoming seven hundred pages, the prospect of coming home and reading is unlikely to inspire you with enthusiasm. But if you set yourself the goal of reading just one chapter or ten pages, such a task will not cause resistance.
The trick of this approach is that it is much more difficult for us to start than to continue what we started. Having taken up the reading of ten pages, it is unlikely that you will limit yourself to them. Of course, you will not read all seven hundred pages at once, but 20-30 instead of ten is already a good result.
However, in order for it to work effectively, it is important to sincerely give yourself permission to stop at one step. Ten pages a day is enough. If you’re tired and can’t do more, don’t push yourself. Do what you have planned as the smallest step towards the goal.
In a similar way, you can do with any, even the most ambitious project. Do not take on the whole thing: write out a daily plan for yourself and follow it. Moving in jerks, you will quickly burn out and lose all interest in achieving the goal. Consistency and moderation may not be the most exciting concepts, but they will definitely get you there.
Most often at school, we are taught various disciplines, but they do not teach us how to learn at all. How to learn to concentrate on the action being performed and not be distracted? How to study without cramming? How to remember only the important? How to read a lot without losing the meaning of what you read? What does it really mean to think about a problem from different angles? Now that we have grown up, finding answers to these questions is our main task and responsibility.
Imagine that your attention is a beam of light traveling through different corners of the mind. What you direct it at, then it snatches it out of the darkness. Whenever you feel that the beam is wandering aimlessly through space, make a conscious effort to direct it to the object you need. At first, it will not be easy, but time is on your side – gradually the skill will reach almost automaticity.
Try to do only one thing at a time. Multitasking steals the resource of concentration, and as a result, instead of one fully completed task, you will get three unfinished ones that will hang over your head like a sword of Damocles and will not let you rest. Do not litter the physical and digital space around you. Tidy up your desk, remove all visually distracting things from your room or office, and turn off notifications on your phone. Create an environment where external stimuli cannot steal your attention.
Meditation, yoga and even some martial arts are great ways to calm your mind and organize your thoughts, but if you need to focus quickly in the middle of the day, follow these three simple exercises:
1. Do your breathing practice. Exhale through your mouth. Now inhale through your nose for four counts. Hold your breath for seven counts. Exhale all the air in eight counts. Repeat four times.
2. Close the unfinished task. Think about what is preventing you from starting a new task right now, and solve this problem. Our brain is so arranged that while it is under stress due to unfinished business, it cannot fully begin a new one.
3. Schedule time to think. For example, if you encounter a problem while completing a task, say to yourself, “I’ll think about it today at 4:15 pm.” Such a clear schedule will relieve anxiety and allow you to complete the current stage.
Use an active memory technique. Once you have studied the material, stop and write down or retell out loud everything that you can remember. Then go back to the material and check how much you can remember. Complete your notes or story. Plan your training so that you have time to review.
Do spaced repetitions. Repeat the same material several times, constantly supplementing yourself and trying to reproduce what did not work last time. It is best to repeat information at regular intervals. For example, for four days before breakfast and dinner. Then move on to the next layer of information and follow the same pattern.
Manage your condition. Your physical and mental form is your responsibility. Give yourself the right amount of sleep, watch your posture and how you sit during class, and work with negative thoughts, and attitudes – all of this significantly affects the learning process.
Plug-in scents. The smell is one of our most ancient senses. It appeals directly to the amygdala and hippocampus, which are actively involved in the production of emotions and memories. Try using an essential oil when preparing for an important exam or presentation, and then apply it to your wrist on the day you need it.
Get busy with music. According to recent studies, classical music helps to focus and maintain focus for a long time. This is due to the specific rhythm and melody of the musical text. It is especially productive to learn new words to music, memorize new facts and read.
Use active listening techniques. Give yourself this setting: if you are going to perceive information by ear, this is the only thing you will do at the moment. Try to find something interesting in the speaker himself or in the way he speaks. If possible, ask clarifying questions and ask to repeat certain parts. At the end of the lecture, try to reproduce it in your own words, as if you were in the position of the teacher and want to teach imaginary students.
Write it down. The main value of the abstract is that it allows you to absorb information using your vocabulary in a form that you understand. Ideally, the summary will allow you to quickly resurrect the broad context and make it possible to use the information received as efficiently as possible.
The author insists that, contrary to popular belief, memory cannot be good or bad. Memory is only trained and untrained.
The key mechanism of memory is associations. In essence, memory is the connection of a new fragment with an old one. If you fail to remember something, it does not mean that you have a bad memory. This means that you have not yet been able to connect new knowledge to something already known.
One of the most effective techniques for connecting new disparate facts to existing connections is storytelling. If you have a lot of new words to remember, try combining them into a story.
Associations associated with known words will help to incorporate new ones into the big picture. It’s even better if you have the ability to connect images because, from the point of view of the brain, one picture is worth a thousand words. Any auxiliary associations also work for you: connect smells and tactile sensations, try to dilute dry facts with humor, and make them emotionally significant.
And if you need to prepare for an important event and perform at it without supporting materials, use the method of loci. This is a mnemonic memorization technique that became famous in the days of Ancient Rome:
- Identify ten key points for your presentation.
- Imagine in your mind a place that you know well, such as your room or apartment.
- Lay a path through it, for example, from the front door to the far window.
- Identify ten points along the way that you can easily remember.
- Now get up to the beginning of the path and begin to gradually place these on these points, moving forward.
- Speak the entire presentation, mentally moving from one point to another.
We live in the age of data. Never before in the history of mankind has there been such a dense flow of information.
The ability to keep up with new data now determines not only professional and academic success, but also the quality of life in general.
To improve your reading speed, you need to measure how fast you read now. For this:
1. Set a timer for two minutes.
2. Take simple fiction and read at your own pace.
3. Count the number of words in the three standard lines and divide this number by three. This is the average number of words per line.
4. Now count the number of lines in the resulting passage. Consider only those lines that are at least half-filled with words.
5. Multiply the number of words from point 3 by the number of lines from point 4.
6. Divide this number by two (since you read for two minutes). The result is the average number of words you read per minute.
On average, people read 150-200 words per minute, but this result can be improved at least twice.
Move your finger along the line. In childhood, we are weaned from this, although the body intuitively feels: the eye focuses on movement. By sliding your finger across the page of a book, you do not allow the brain to be distracted by other stimuli – all attention is riveted to the movement of the hand. Studies have shown that this way of reading helps increase speed by 25-100%. The more you practice, the better the results will be.
Practice reading for a while. Set a timer and read at a leisurely pace for four minutes. Make a note of where you left off. Now set a timer for three minutes and try to read the same passage faster. In the same way, reduce the reading of the passage to one minute. Don’t focus on reading comprehension. Practice the skill of quick word recognition. Then set the timer again for two minutes and read without counting the lines, reading the content. Count the number of lines and determine your new reading speed.
Learn to read multiple words at the same time. Most of us read the words one by one and say them to ourselves. This is very time-consuming. To break this habit and read in short sentences, try reading and counting out loud at the same time (“one, two, three…”). You will notice that it is very difficult to say the words out loud and to yourself at the same time. The brain will begin to “see” the words and read their meaning from visual perception. By switching to a speed of 300-350 words per minute, you simply stop having time to pronounce them to yourself, and the final transition will happen by itself.
As Albert Einstein said, it is impossible to solve a problem by applying the same approach that led to it. In order to awaken your creativity and take a different look at the usual tasks and situations, the author suggests using different cognitive models and constantly expanding your arsenal.
Edward de Bono, a British psychologist, and writer developed the concept of the “six thinking hats” 6. Its main idea is to divide the comprehension of the problem into six stages according to the number of corresponding types of thinking.
As a metaphor, the author of the methodology suggested using colored hats.
- White hat – information and facts. Wearing this hat, you start collecting data and identify what information you are missing.
- Yellow hat – optimism. In this hat, you look for all the benefits associated with a task or problem and form positive expectations.
- Black hat – critical judgments. You now identify the risks, obstacles, and potential hazards associated with the task.
- Red hat – emotions. By wearing this hat, you determine what emotions the task before you evokes and connect your intuition.
- Green hat – creativity. At this point, you have analyzed the problem and looked at it from an emotional perspective. It’s time to look for creative, unusual approaches to solving it. This is the stage for experimentation, and flight of thought.
- Blue hat – strategy and management. It’s time to take stock of the thought process and plan the next steps. Many organizations start and end with a blue hat to better structure the process.
Thus, you go through a full circle of understanding the problem or the task you are facing: determine the main goal and the desired outcome of the thinking session; consider the facts you have; form a positive outlook on the problem; think about it critically; acknowledge the feelings you have about the situation; allow yourself complete freedom of creativity and experiment with approaches; sum up the session and plan further actions.
Colin Powell, former US Secretary of State, made decisions based on the 40/70 rule, which never made a decision with less than 40% of the information and never collect more than 70% of all available data. By collecting less than 40% of the total amount of information that is supposed to be available on this issue, you are pointing your finger at the sky. Conversely, information overload only makes it harder to make a decision.
Three models that will help improve your critical thinking skill:
1. Productivity: a to-do list. We are used to writing down everything, even the smallest things. As a result, the list for the day is so long that it is impossible to concentrate on one thing. The author proposes to deviate from the typical template and, based on the first list, make a second one, which will include: important things that depend on other people; tasks that do not add value to your life and that can be delegated; things that have become automatic and therefore do not need additional attention; urgent cases at the request of other people – not all of them must be done independently and performed at all.
2. Problem-solving: work on bugs. To really turn mistakes into a learning tool, you need to learn how to actively interact with them. Determine exactly what happened and what didn’t. To build real causal relationships, you need to operate with facts, not guesses and emotions. Find the external trigger and the deeper cause of the error. Think about how to avoid this mistake in the future. Finally, make a clear plan for how to succeed next time.
3. Strategic thinking: two steps ahead. We rarely think about the consequences of our actions two or three steps ahead, and yet they are often more important than short-term results. Use second-tier thinking: constantly ask yourself what will happen next; play possible scenarios for the development of events for five days, months, or years in advance; describe the consequences of each of the options for further action, and compare the results.
If you set yourself an ambitious goal to change the world, your main ally on this path is exponential thinking. Linear thinking helps solve a specific problem: you define a problem, put on different hats, experiment, and eventually find the most effective approach to solving it. Exponential thinking addresses the root problem directly.
For example, in one of the regions, there is not enough drinking water. Establishing a water delivery system from another region is a linear approach. It solves a specific problem but does not address its cause. To conduct a study, to find out that the problem is not a lack of water, but that most of it goes to agriculture, and to start reforming this system is an exponential approach. Great companies and entrepreneurs differ from others in that they operate at a different level of generalization and change the core of the established scheme, rather than its constituent parts.
Top 10 Thoughts
1. Model of unlimited thinking = (Mental attitudes + Motivation + Methods) – Constraints.
2. Limiting mental attitudes come to us from society and from loved ones. The main way to get rid of them is to operate with facts and not use generalizations.
3. Motivation is a verb. In order to motivate yourself to move forward every day, you need to identify the main goal of everyday activities and understand how performing routine tasks lead to their achievement.
4. To move towards the goal, you need not only motivation but also a supply of vital energy. Be proactive, and create a healthy, supportive environment within and around you.
5. Big projects are intimidating in their scope. The art of small steps will help to cope with fear. Set yourself feasible daily goals and do not strive to overfulfill the plan.
6. The main enemies of concentration are multitasking and an abundance of external stimuli. Train yourself to do one task at a time and turn off notifications on your phone for that time.
7. If you were not taught to learn as a child, it’s time to do it yourself. The key to successful learning is to actively participate in the process, not passively consume information.
8. Memory is not good or bad, it is only trained or untrained. Use different practices: storytelling, olfactory and tactile associations, and the method of loci.
9. In the modern world, the one who reads a lot and quickly wins. Measure your current speed and start gradually increasing it. Do not be afraid to lose quality, you will be surprised how quickly the brain adapts to new realities.
10. Exponential thinking is the culmination of the development of personal abilities. The ability to work with the root problem, and not its symptoms, makes great innovators out of simply successful companies and people.
1 . For information on how to develop a fluid way of thinking, read the summary of Carol Dweck’s book, Ways of Mind. The new psychology of success. How to learn to use your potential.
2 . Polyglot Benny Lewis, by the way, believes that this is quite real, read the summary of his book Speak a Foreign Language Fluently in Three Months.
3 . Read the summary of Brené Brown’s book The Great Dare.
4 . Read the summary of Angela Duckworth’s book Strength of Character. How to develop in yourself the main quality of successful people.
5 . For how this works in business, read the summary of Dov Seidman’s book Attitude Determines Result.
6 . Read the summary of Edward de Bono’s The Six Thinking Hats.